Oct 7: The Shining (1980)


Jack Torrance, a writer and recovering alcoholic, takes a job as a “winter-over” at the isolated Overlook Hotel. His young son possesses psychic abilities and is able to see things from the past and future, such as the ghosts that haunt the Overlook. The film depicts the trials of the Torrance family, as the abject isolation of the snowbound hotel serves as the setting for the family’s descent into madness.

The Shining is a film rich in subversive, psychiatric themes, with several interpretations rendered by authors, anthropologists, and historians (Room 237, 2012). This post examines “the true meaning” of Kubrick’s film, and to our knowledge, is the only opinion rendered from a clinical perspective.


The Shining serves as an opportunity to teach the Psychotic and Related Disorders. Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized and grossly catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms (affective flattening, apathy, and anhedonia) are all signs possessed by the patriarchal main character. While the general consensus is that The Shining explores themes related to psychosis, Stuart Ullman’s disclosure of the 1970 tragedy of a former caretaker, Grady, “running amok” is foreshadowing of the film’s clandestine meaning. Amok is a culturally (Malaysian) bound syndrome hallmarked by episodes of sudden mass assault following a period of brooding. A brief examination of the film reveals two themes that allow for the formulation of another culturally bound syndrome that explains the behavior of the Torrance family.

A. A pre-established delusion is identified in an individual
Prior to moving into the Overlook, Jack’s son, Danny, has a terrifying premonition about the hotel that causes him to faint. During a medical evaluation, Wendy tells a visiting doctor that her son has an imaginary friend called Tony whose emergence coincides with Danny going to nursery school around the time Jack dislocated Danny’s shoulder (following a binge episode).
While a physician reassures Wendy that Danny’s imaginary friend is “just a phase,” there’s reason to believe Tony is a sign of an underlying mental disorder and therefore is not developmentally appropriate. While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a provisional diagnosis, two scenes are critical to the formulation of a differential diagnosis. First, Ullman tells Jack that the hotel is built on the site of a 1907 Native American burial ground. Next, a precocious Danny joins the discussion about the Donner party on the way to the Overlook. The ill-fated settlers had to resort to cannibalism after their wagon train was trapped by an early, heavy snowfall through the Sierra Nevada.

Taken together, we can conclude that Danny is afflicted with Wendigo psychosis; a culturally bound syndrome that affects people who think about cannibalism. Originally afflicting individuals of the Algonquin tribe, the syndrome preserves cultural taboos by reinforcing the prohibition against cannibalism. Danny’s taking part in the adult discussion about the Donner party constitutes a significant boundary violation, and results in his becoming possessed by the malevolent cannibalistic spirit.

B. A delusion develops in the context of a close relationship with another person that is similar in content to that of the person who already has the established delusion

Jack wanders into the Gold Room where a ghostly bartender named Lloyd serves him bourbon on the rocks. Meanwhile, Danny’s curiosity gets the better of him when he wanders into Room 237 despite the omen not to enter. When Danny returns from Room 237, he is visibly traumatized, causing Wendy to think that Jack is abusing Danny again. Wendy shows up in the Gold Room and informs Jack that Danny told her a “crazy woman in one of the rooms” was responsible for his injuries.
Jack investigates Room 237 and has an experience similar in content to Danny’s. Specifically, a mysterious female seduces Jack, but then turns into a symbolic manifestation of the wicked woman from Hansel and Gretel (who lured children like Danny with candy before transforming into a witch). The Hansel and Gretel fairy tale was foreshadowed when Wendy first met Dick Hallorann and said she felt the need to put down breadcrumbs in order to find her way around the Overlook.
In room 237, we are presented with the Evil Step-Mother Archetype (Table 1). The universal presence of this motif reinforces that this archetype results from a defense mechanism (splitting) employed by children to contain all they hate in their mothers so they can continue to regard them as perfect (the explanation of why Danny “hates” his mother is beyond the scope of this post).

Table 1. The Evil Step-Mother Archetype1 & The Shining
Fairy Tales depicting Evil Step-Mothers Theme The Shining (film)
Cinderella Getting home safely before midnight Grady's runs Amok, and murders his family at the New Year's Eve gala
Hansel and Gretel (1856) Cannibalism Donner Pass; "breadcrumb" reference; Wendigo psychosis
Snow White and the Seven Dwarves (1819) White, red, and black The colors of the labyrinth
Rapunzel Trapped and shut away Wendy is trapped in the bathroom suite (her hair falling forward) after Danny is let out of the window.
1. The relationship between Danny and his mother has been critically analyzed, and relates to "the twins" who themselves represent Freudian splitting of the mother image.

Upon returning from Room 237, Jack casts an image in the mirror when entering the suite. He tells Wendy he found nothing, explaining that Danny’s bruises were self-inflicted, “I think he did it to himself.” Faced with this reality, Danny becomes acutely psychotic as evidenced by his shining (disorganized or grossly catatonic behavior) into his parents’ conversation. This further establishes that Danny is the proband case of psychosis. This is followed by Jack’s exacerbation (transmission) as evidenced by his becoming verbally abusive (disorganized or grossly catatonic behavior) towards Wendy. As he storms out of the suite, he casts no reflection in the mirror, having truly lost who he is/his soul.

Taken together, The Shining is a case study of Shared Psychotic Disorder (SPD). Also referred to as folie aI� deux, SPD is a rare psychotic disorder usually found in long-term relationships with close emotional ties.

At the Amundsen’Scott South Pole Station, most personnel leave by the middle of February, leaving a few dozen “winter-overs” (mostly support staff plus a few scientists), who keep the station functional through the months of Antarctic night. The winter personnel are isolated between mid-February and late October. After the last flight has left for the winter, an annual tradition is a double feature viewing of The Thing and The Shining. As a homage to the winter- overs, we’ve dubbed tomorrow, October 7, with John Carpenter’s The Thing!

Oct 6: The Exorcist (1973)


The seminal movie of the “demonic possession’ subgenre is William Friedkin’s 1973 film adaptation of The Exorcist. The film and its novel are based on true events. In a 1972 New York Times article titled “Everyone’s Reading It, Billy’s Filming It,” Chris Chase reported that Peter Blatty based his novel on the 1949 Washington Post story, “Priest Frees Mt. Rainier Boy Reported Held in Devil’s Grip.” Details are provided in the personal diary of Fr. Raymond Bishop who performed over 30 exorcisms on 13-year-old Roland Doe. Supernatural occurrences noted in the diary included, but were not limited to, distortions in Doe’s voice (1). It has been speculated that Doe’s behavior may have been the result of a Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal (PANDAS) infection.


At Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, the first module–titled Necromancy–of our year-long resident Psychopathology course focuses on ghosts (wraiths) and demons. While the former references disorders that are episodic in nature, tales of demonic possession serve to reinforce teaching points of chronic and persistent illnesses such as the Dissociative Disorders (DD). At the completion of the DD block, participants should appreciate that movies about demonic possession may be metaphorically interpreted as case studies of dissociation. For example, the hallmark characteristic of Dissociative Identity Disorder, a disruption of identity, may be described in some cultures as an experience of possession (DSM-5).

Another pedagogic lesson of The Exorcist references Holotropic Breathwork (HB). HB combines music with accelerated breathing to reach an “altered state of consciousness” as a form of self-exploration and psychotherapy. In their book (2), the Grofs describe the experience of demonic energy as “a change in facial and vocal expression…[their] voice is deep and raspy…spastic contractions make their hands look like claws, and their entire body tenses. [They] can muster physical strength.” After an outburst, everything quiets down and there is an eerie silence.

Regan demonstrates the pathognomonic description of demonic energy, which is associated with reliving memories of severe childhood trauma. The absence of her father and nocturnal enuresis (urinates coming down the stairs) lend further support to this potential etiology of Regan’s “possession.”

1. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/23/horror-films-inspired-by-real- life_n_4150442.html
2. Grof S, MD & Grof C, PhDhc. Holotropic Breathwork, p 194-95.

Oct 5: Hellraiser (1987)


In celebration of Clive Barker’s birthday (10/5), Hellraiser is a horror franchise that consists of nine films, a series of comic books, and merchandise based on the novella, The Hellbound Heart, by Barker.

We know from Homer’s Iliad that the Greeks maintained a culture based upon honor. Knowing the boundaries of one’s place was essential to safeguard order and justice. Moira, a word for fate, was simultaneously a word for “portion’ or “that which one was due.” The sanctity and stability of the culture was continually threatened by lustful and prideful strivings.

Nemesis was fate’s punishing avenger. Older than Zeus, she was the goddess of divine indignation and retribution. An executor of justice, she punished excessive lust, pride, undeserved fortune, as well as the absence of moderation. As a goddess of rightful proportion, Nemesis despised transgressions of moderation. Her mission was to intervene in human affairs to restore equilibrium when it was unbalanced by those who were lustful.

Hellraiser is a modern Greek tragedy about a man whose lust for self-indulgence leads him on a search for Lemarchand’s box; a key that opens the door to another dimension. The tangent dimension is the realm of the Cenobites who are led by the mysterious Pinhead. Hellraiser is a film that depicts the trials of Frank Cotton who will battle his nemesis in a quest to “explore…the further regions of experience.”


Like so many Greek myths, Hellraiser illustrates the dangerous manifestations of lust across time and culture. Configurations of lust have been on our phylogenetic radar as archetypal forms of warnings. Ancestral warnings about lust reflect our species’ innate preparedness to protect prosocial behaviors. The role of Jungian prosocial behaviors – such as fairness, cooperation and reciprocity – is to create and maintain societies.

However, lust for power is also instinctual, linked with survival advantages. The movie, Hellraiser, is an illustration of the collision between these opposing archetypal needs.
Hellraiser also serves as a case study of the paraphilias (sexual deviances), specifically, Sexual Masochism Disorder. Defined as recurrent and intense sexual arousal from the act of being made to suffer, viewing the film as a case study of the paraphilias paints Frank Cotton as a loathsome and dangerous character.

The Cenobites – “Angels to some, demons to others” – are incarnations of the Furies; with Pinface as the modern manifestation of Nemesis. This alternative interpretation transforms the
character of the chief Cenobite and parallels the other main characters of the film with Aeschylus’s Oresteia (Table 1.)

Yet another alternative theme transforms the character of Frank into a spiritual healer rather than a sexual deviant. Shamanism is humanity’s oldest healing art, dating back to the Paleolithic era. While the origin of shamanism can be traced back to the Tungus people of Siberia, the designation may be applied to any healer who uses consciousness-altering techniques in their healing work. It is necessary for the shaman-to-be to enter into an extreme personal crisis in preparation of his/her role as a healer. The “shamanistic crisis” is the term applied to the psychotic episode that calls a person into shamanism.
In many cultures, specific “first-rank” psychotic symptoms are interpreted as an indication of an individual’s destiny to become a shaman (rather than a sign of mental illness). Such symptoms include “babbling” confused words, displaying curious eating habits, singing continuously, dancing wildly, and being “tormented by spirits.” These signs usually adhere to 3 phases of spiritual enlightenment:

  1. Descent to the Realm of Death: confrontations with demonic forces, dismemberment
  2. Reconstitution: communion with the world of spiritual creatures
  3. Ascension via the World Tree and/or Cosmic Bird and assimilation of the elemental forces

While Frank Cotton may be depicted as a sexual masochist with blatant disregard for others’ well-being, perhaps his bizarre behavior as evidenced by his being tormented by spirits is due to a shamanistic crisis. His a) solving Lemarchand’s box – “You solved the box, we came. Now you must come with us, taste our pleasures,” b) seduction of Julia to reconstitute, and c) transformation into the flying creature (cosmic bird) at the end of the film all suggest a psycho- spiritual interpretation.

Table 1.
Hellraiser The Oresteia Comment
Pinface The Furies Like the Furies, the leader of the Cenobites only answers requests for vengeance which are performed according to the old traditions.
Julia Clytemnestra In the novella, Julia matches Clytemnestra in motive (lust) and means (knife).
Kirsty Cassandra Both characters are cursed with the sight of prophecy with no one to believe them.

Oct 4: The Cabin in the Woods (2012)


On the surface, The Cabin in the Woods fills its role in the horror genre as yet another slasher film that takes place in a remote location. Five college students innocently embark on a journey to the cabin for what should be a pleasurable weekend getaway. As they explore their surroundings, they find a cellar filled with relics. Unbeknownst to them, their curiosity will ultimately resurrect a family of zombies.

The film quickly departs from the rest of the genre in its unique ability to pay homage to some of the greatest horror films of all time. With references to Evil Dead, Hellraiser, Scream, and Halloween just to name a few; movie enthusiasts will be thoroughly engaged. Furthermore [spoiler alert], the film adds an element of “Big Brother,” as video cameras stream the events that take place to spectators thousands of miles away. From drugs, sex, and sheer horror, The Cabin in the Woods makes for one of the most subversive yet enjoyable viewing experiences to date.


Medical anthropology is defined as the study of human behavior and disease from a multidimensional and ecological perspective. In Cabin, Joss Whedon tackles universal fears of separate cultures using monsters from films set in different countries. For example, when Dana recites from the journal discovered in the cellar, she inadvertently summons the Zombie Redneck Torture (Buckner) Family. There are both anthropological and educational interpretations to Dana “seeking out” the Buckners. The former is addressed by The Director (Sigourney Weaver) at the climax of the film, and has been a focused topic in the blogosphere since Cabin premiered in 2012. The latter is an academic spin on the relevance of the zombie in US medical education (see our 10/1 post on Night of the Living Dead). Table 1 takes an additional 5 monsters from Whedon’s colossal multi-cubed storage elevator and describes how each can link to teaching a category of mental illness.

Medical anthropology and the study of culturally-sanctioned behavior substitute empathy for ethnocentrism. For example, if someone from Northern NJ traveled to the bayou of the southeastern US, they may experience behaviors that they consider “abnormal.” However, from an anthropological perspective, when behavior such as rootwork (spells) is found to be the cultural norm, no medical opinion (psychiatric diagnosis) is rendered. This idea is taken to another level in Cabin, as we learn that countries all over the world are participating in the ancient ritual. Whedon captures this by linking each culture’s fears to their own iconic monster: while cabins in woods are woven into the US culture, “Japanese floaty girls” are indigenous to Asia. This opens up a wealth of horror films with their own psychiatric interpretations. See Table 2 to formulate your own opinion on what movies like Ringu (1998) “are really about.”

Table 1
Monster from The Cabin in the Woods Related Topic in Psychiatry Explanation1
The Reanimated Personality Theory Shelley's characters represent aspects of the Jungian collective unconscious
Vampires Personality Disorders Inspiration for Stoker's eponymous antagonist is from a nonfictional biography of Vlad the Impaler, one of history's most disturbing accounts of Antisocial Personality Disorder.
Mummy Culture Bound Syndromes The un-dead monster exhibits behavior indicative of Zar, a culturally-bound
syndrome indigenous to Africa (Egypt)
Werewolf Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders The folkloric shape-shifter serves as a metaphor for Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Merman Substance Use Disorders The original merman, The Creature from the Black Lagoon, is a case study and metaphorical analysis of alcohol's effects on human behavior

Oct 3: The Evil Dead 2 (1987)


Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn (1987) is a parody sequel of Sam Rami’s 1981 film that begins with a revised recap of the events of the first movie. The background provided introduces the Necronomicon Ex-Mortis (Book of the Dead). Similar to the Lemarchand configuration (Hellraiser, 1987), the Book of the Dead serves as a passage way to an evil dimension.

Having disappeared in 1300 AD, Professor Knowby discovers the book in the rear chamber of the Castle of Cantar. The film depicts the events of Linda, and a group of “uninvited guests” upon discovering the Knowby tapes in a cabin in the woods; translations that have resurrected a spiritual presence (deadites) that can possess the living.


Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn serves as an opportunity to teach the Dissociative Disorders. After Linda is possessed by the deadites, Ash decapitates his girlfriend and buries her in a shallow grave. While defense mechanisms such as denial and projection (anger) are characteristically associated with bereavement, Ash demonstrates another ego defense, dissociation. He is grieving while holding Linda’s charm when he sees the piano play itself. The piano being experienced as unreal and dreamlike is a sign of derealization (defining of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder, a type of Dissociative Disorder).

What follows is one of the most iconic scenes in horror film history, and one that serves to reinforce the Dissociative Disorders. Ash’s derealization continues when he reaches out to touch a chair rocking by itself. He then experiences detachment with respect to his body (hand). During his depersonalization, his “alien hand” smashes dishes and punches himself, rendering him unconscious. This particular form of Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder is sometimes referred to as the Alien Hand Syndrome.

Finally, the movie also follows Jungian psychology and the hero archetype; the hero from the sky (Good Ash) who is prophesized to destroy an ancient evil. Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn parallels other movies depicting the hero archetype including Donnie Darko (2001). Darko, a movie about a first-break psychosis, introduces The Philosophy of Time Travel; a manuscript “to be used as a simple guide in a time of great danger” (universe to implode). The guide defines the necessary elements and “players” for time travel such as the “manipulated dead.” Hence the parallel (pun intended) between Darko and The Evil Dead 2; the latter being a film that eerily follows The Philosophy of Time Travel, as Ash (living receiver) battles the evil (manipulated) dead, after reciting passages from the Necronomicon Ex-Mortis (artifact).

For a truly unique movie experience; a) watch Donnie Darko, b) read The Philosophy of Time Travel, c) re-watch Donnie Darko, then d) make it a double feature by watching Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn.

Oct 2: Donnie Darko (2001)


Donnie Darko begins on October 2 with the appearance of Frank, a sinister giant rabbit who saves Donnie from being killed by a mysterious jet engine falling from the sky. Frank informs the title character of the world’s imminent demise and Donnie unwillingly and unknowingly is transformed into the protagonist of a quest to save the universe. As the story progresses, Frank’s appearances become more and more troublesome, as evidenced by Donnie’s increasingly bizarre behavior and his disclosures to his psychiatrist while under hypnosis who believes him to be delusional. Donnie subsequently receives a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia.

At Frank’s command, Donnie asks his science teacher about time travel, and is given The Philosophy of Time Travel, a guide written by a former science teacher at his school who is now an urban legend. The book describes a scenario whereby a tangent universe (TU) may arise due to disruptions in time. The TU is inherently unstable, and its collapse marks the end of both universes unless a specific metal artifact (e.g. plane engine) is returned to the primary universe (PU) through a vortex. As the film progresses, the concepts of time travel and alternate universes become entwined with Donnie’s frank portrayal of psychopathology, forcing a tension between the storyline as straight science fiction versus a direct depiction of severe mental illness.


Discordant interpretations of Donnie Darko are possible depending if the viewer accepts or rejects the premise of time travel as a plot device.

Rejecting the time travel hypothesis
With the concept of time travel reduced to a paranoid and grandiose delusion, Donnie Darko is a case study of a first-break psychotic episode. In the “Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders” section of the DSM-5, a diagnosis of schizophrenia is made when patients demonstrate social or occupational dysfunction for at least 6 months with at least 1 month of symptoms (delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech + either disorganized behavior or negative symptoms). Donnie’s presentation includes the hallucination of Frank and the delusion that the world will end in 28 days, 06 hours, 42 minutes, and 12 seconds. In addition, his behavior is bizarre and he has profound “negative symptoms:” blunted emotionality, decline in speech (alogia) and reduced motivation (anhedonia). While psychotherapy focuses on improving social and occupational functioning, the mainstay of treatment is with pharmacotherapy. While dopaminergic drugs are effective in controlling the hallucinations, delusions and bizarre behavior, the negative symptoms may be refractory to treatment. While the majority of persons with schizophrenia are nonviolent, command and persecutory delusions may make sufferers particularly unpredictable. High prevalence of cormorbid substance abuse disorders, homelessness, and incarceration are complicating factors impacting treatment efficacy and compliance. While there is some evidence suggesting that childhood sexual abuse may increase the likelihood of schizophrenia, this point is contested. In the director’s cut of Donnie Darko, there is a portrayal of a sexual encounter with his psychiatrist during hypnotism, possibly suggesting this association (or perhaps underscoring the vulnerability of this population).

Furthermore, if the onset of his delusions and hallucinations is subsequent to Donnie’s near- death experience with the falling jet engine, then Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders would be worth diagnostic consideration as well.

Accepting the time travel premise
If one accepts the time travel tale as possible, Donnie emerges as the tortured hero in the spirit of Joseph Campbell. According to Campbell’s theory, the hero must be cast out of his normal reality (here, called by Frank and jolted into the alternate universe by the falling jet engine) onto a path of self-exploration, personal growth and ultimate acceptance and command over his fate. Though Donnie’s obedience to Frank’s commands signifies a willingness to accept his destiny, his first open declaration to this end comes with his investigation into time travel. The Philosophy of Time Travel declares that inhabitants of the alternate universe (TU) exist in the service of Donnie’s success at repairing the rift in space-time. Perhaps in an effort not to interfere with his quest, Donnie’s psychiatrist prescribes him placebos for his apparent schizophrenia. He perseveres, guided by Roberta Sparrow, who helps him overcome his fear of death. Donnie’s hero’s journey ends with his discovery of telekinetic power and ultimately his acceptance that his death is necessary.

It is academically curious that The Evil Dead (1981) is featured in Donnie Darko. Its parody sequel, Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn (1987), serves as a teaching tool for the Dissociative Disorders (DD). Arguably, one of the most iconic scenes in cult film history features Ash versus his own (alien) hand. Through a psychiatrist’s lens, the scene depicts Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder; a type of DD where the individual experiences unreality with respect to his body or actions. By featuring The Evil Dead in Donnie Darko, a link is then established between the psychotic and dissociative disorders.

Current debate about the etiology of the Dissociative Disorders concerns the role of early life trauma and defining a distinction between disassociation as a defense mechanism versus a psychopathology. It has been proposed that the neurobiological mechanisms underlying Schizophrenia and Dissociative Disorders may be common, forming some of the recent debate regarding where the Dissociative Disorders should be included in future versions of the DSM. Additional psychotic-dissociative links between the 2 movies are detailed in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Links between The Evil Dead and Donnie Darko
Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn Donnie Darko
Sam Rami's original film, The Evil Dead, is shown in Donnie Darko
Follows The Philosophy of Time Travel featuring Ash as the hero archetype Follows The Philosophy of Time Travel featuring Donnie as the hero archetype
Roberta (Bobby) Joe, Jake's girlfriend Roberta Sparrow (Grandma Death)
Henrietta Knowby is trapped under a cellar door Karen Pomeroy teaches that "cellar door" is the most linguistically perfect word in the English language
Both movies end in vortices

Oct 1: Night of the Living Dead (1968)


Night of the Living Dead premiered on this date in 1968. It is an independent film directed by George A. Romero that follows a wayward protagonist, Ben, and 6 others who are trapped in a rural Pennsylvania farmhouse. Their shelter is attacked by “living dead” ghouls, making Night the landmark zombie film of its generation. Among Night’s many contributions are that the zombies a) resemble “regular people,” b) possess memory and rudimentary intelligence, c) could be de-animated only by destroying the brain, and d) are cannibals.


Night of the Living Dead is renowned for relegating the zombie horde to a backdrop of the human condition, thus allowing the viewer to focus on human motivation during a time of crisis. In his 1943 manuscript, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Abraham Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs. Night of the Living Dead serves to review Maslow’s deficiency needs; specifically, those of physiological, safety, belongingness, and esteem.

Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next level. This principle is tested with the introduction of Mr. Harry Cooper and Tom, as the group dynamic displaces the zombie as the primary threat. Harry represents the need for safety/shelter, as he is adamant that the cellar is the most secure area of the home. His point of view is opposed by Ben who counters that the upstairs is the most important area to protect because of its resources (including the physiological need for food). Thus, their conflict of prioritizing their deficiency needs replaces the zombies as the primary threat. Ben’s assertion is loyal to the Maslowian pyramid, as Harry puts safety needs ahead of the biological. Their conflict reaches a pinnacle when Harry grabs Ben’s rifle and threatens to shoot him. [Spoiler Alert] Ben wrestles the gun away when it fires, mortally wounding Harry who (ironically) stumbles into the cellar and dies.